Latino Population Leaving Bushwick, Brooklyn- It Matters

•March 27, 2017 • Leave a Comment

The ongoing gentrification of Bushwick, Brooklyn is an important issue because it is something that directly affects and displaces disenfranchised working class people. These working class people are apart of a variety of ethnicities, races, and genders, they include, people from Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Asia and African American people. People of racial and economic privilege have moved into Bushwick, Brooklyn in order avoid the cost of Manhattan prices (a bit of a contradiction on their part, Bushwick is close to Manhattan prices now), as result, the prices in Bushwick have gone up and the native population are being displaced.

My ecology matters on the macro level because people are being kicked out of their homes. They are being forced to live else where like deeper into Brooklyn, the Bronx and even out of New York. On the micro level those who remain feel a disconnect with the incoming demographic and with their neighborhood as a whole. This disconnect comes from the newer population not willing to engage with the locals in terms of shopping at their business, talking to them and social things of that nature.

My ecology relates to the reading Autonomy of Affect by Brian Musumi becaus the study of affect is essential to how certain stimuli make people feel. Those who are displaced or still remain in Bushwick, are susceptible to many of the stimuli produced by the new demographic and produces affect. With this being said, it is important to consider affect when people are responding to something, in this case, their loved ones and neighbors being displaced.

Another reading that relates to my ecology would have to be Valerie Kuletz, Nuclear Wasteland and Kim Stringfellow, Greetings from the Salton Sea not necessarily in the theoretical sense but in the sense that they both deal with physical locations, people’s living spaces and what some can consider geographic racism.

One may ask why is this important? Some may say, “it has always been that way, there is nothing you can do”. I tend to dismiss statements that disregard social construct and are rooted in Social Darwinism. The bottom line is, people are being displaced, businesses are closing down, these people need a voice and that is why my ecology matters.

 

Works Cited

Kuletz, Valerie. The Tainted Desert: Environmental Ruin in the American West. New York: Routledge, 1998. Print.

Massumi, Brian. “The Autonomy of Affect.” Parables for the Virtual (2002): 23-45. Web.

Stringfellow, Kim. Greetings from the Salton Sea: Folly and Intervention in the Southern California Landscape, 1905-2005

Food Disparity Matters

•March 27, 2017 • 2 Comments

The concern for food disparity has skyrocketed in the past decade. Gradually, more and more foodstuffs are going to the waste despite the fact that hunger still haunts many parts in the world, including the U.S. On top of that, the poor are consuming extremely unhealthy diets while the riches aren’t getting what many of them have expected with the higher price tag they are paying for either.
Therefore, an investigation on food disparity around us matters. What are the determinants and affects that drive our food consumptions? How do our consuming behaviors relate to the issues of contemporary food disparities? In Theresa Brennan’s article “The Transmission of Affect”, she defines the word “affect” as the “interaction with other people and an environment” (Brennan, 3). As one steps into a grocery store, visceral responses are aroused immediately: In a well-decorated grocery market, the tone is usually warm and bright. The color of the products is vibrant. The posters on the wall often suggest you to eat more whole grains breads (symbolizing nature and raw food). Stickers on each rack mark whether the product is organic or locally produced. The spray of water on the vegetables and fruits make them look even fresher and more delicious. (It is hilarious that the spray of water does not prolong, but actually shortens the preservation time of fruits and vegetables!)

Snip 2017-03-27 07.08.39 Furthermore, you probably would never find rot food in these stores. Indeed, you can hardly find blemishes on fruits. While such meticulous selection suits consumers’ cult of perfection, “the demand for ‘perfect’ fruit and veg means much is discarded, damaging the climate and leaving people hungry” (Goldenberg, 2016). “By one government tally, about 60m tonnes of produce worth about $160bn (£119bn), is wasted by retailers and consumers every year – one third of all foodstuffs” (Goldenberg, 2016).

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In contrary to this food waste is the appalling fact of food disparity. When you enter into shabby bodegas in other boroughs, you would have an utterly different consuming experience. The affects can be less pleasant: The light is dark. The space is highly compacted. There are few fresh fruits and vegetable options. And you are very likely to find blemishes on many of the fruits. that People with lower socioeconomic status, who tend to be less conscious of their nutritional balance, consume less fruits and vegetables; hence the small bodegas carry less options; then people with lower SES are more unaccessible to healthier food… It becomes an endless loop.

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Genetically modified foods is another sub-issue in the food disparity realm. Like the Food Inc. narrated, “The way we eat has changed more in the last 50 years than in the previous 10,000” (Food Inc). Food producers in the past decades have turned towards producing genetically modified foods for higher profit. Genetically modified foods can be easier to produce, in terms of lower cost, higher yield, much better taste, and being more appealing to the eye. As mentioned before, visual affect is a huge factor for consumers’ consumption choices.
However, many contemporary scientists argue that genetically modified food benefits the producers at the cost of harming consumers’ health. While genetically modified foodstuffs are strictly prohibited in Europe, restrictions on GMOs in the U.S. are loose. Quoting from the documentary Food Inc that screened in 2008, “They fought not to label genetically modified foods; and now 70% of processed food in the supermarket has some genetically modified ingredient” (Food Inc). Almost a decade later, has the conditions really changed? Indeed, are we having more secure foodstuff because of the contemporary labelling? Or are we actually more blind because of them?
This is an issue that affects both the rich and the poor, but the poor more significantly. Most if not all luxury grocery stores, such as Whole Foods, tries to label most of their products as organic. That doesn’t mean all the foods the rich are consuming are organic and not genetically modified. The legal term of “organic” does not necessarily coincide with our popular beliefs.Snip 2017-03-19 21.39.52

But it does mean is that the riches are more aware of what they are eating. And for sure the overpriced foodstuffs that they are eating contain a lot less hormones and antibiotic comparing to the non-labelled products. The poor, on the other hand, are usually not given a choice between organic and genetically modified foods at their community grocery stores. And most often the poor are all so not educated to know or care about this difference.
All in all, food disparity is created by the wealth and education gap between the riches and the poor, and the nature of the capital market. Food consumption is way beyond the foodstuffs that people are consuming, it is about people’s life expectancy. While the riches expect to adopt fine lifestyles by shopping or eating at the fancier places, the lifestyle the poor has been forced to accepted. Borrowing Stringfellow’s words, “Perhaps better understanding these interconnected processes will allow us to make much more informed political decisions regarding the environmental and ecological concerns of today and those of the future” (Stringfellow, 24). Fighting over food disparity and food insecurity requires much more collaborative efforts by the public than just making food donations to the poor.

References

Brennan, Teresa. The Transmission of Affect. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 2004. PDF.

Food, Inc. Dir. Robert Kenner. Perf. Michael Pollan. Movie One, 2008. Netflix.

Goldenberg, Suzanne. “Half of All US Food Produce Is Thrown Away, New Research Suggests.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 13 July 2016. Web. 25 Mar. 2017.

Stringfellow, Kim. Greetings from the Salton Sea: folly and intervention in the southern California landscape, 1905-2005. Chicago: The Center for American Places at Columbia College Chicago, 2011. Web.

Why Does it Matter?

•March 27, 2017 • Leave a Comment

Rockaway Beach, once a bustling summer destination for middle class New Yorkers, fell into decline when cars, new roads, and improved train service, made the beaches of Long Island more accessible. Robert Moses, New York City’s “master builder”, envisioned turning Rockaway’s summer resorts into year-round residential communities.

After WWII, Rockaway was essentially turned into a “dumping ground” for the city’s poor. In the 1950s, large housing projects for low-income residents and returning veterans were erected in the Rockaways. Initially, there was a strict screening process to get into Rockaway’s new projects. However, over time, those with steady incomes were encouraged to leave to make room for residents on public assistance. The Rockways’ distant location made it a convenient place for the city to place its neediest and most troubled families and individuals. The projects were soon joined by facilities for deinstitutionalized mental patients and nursing homes.

In recent years, Rockaway Beach has gained a resurgence in popularity for summer visitors. But who stays there during the rest of the year?

It turns out, Rockaway Beach is home to the some of the city’s most vulnerable populations. No doubt the Rockaways is home to very wealthy residents, particularly towards the peninsula’s western side. To give you an idea, the eastern end of Rockaway has a minority population of 98%, at the western end, that number drops to 0.2%. So its no coincidence that the train stops at 116th street while the western end of the peninsula stretches all the way to 169th street. However, getting off the peninsula poses a greater challenge to local residents, particularly those who don’t own cars.

Walking through Rockaway beach, I could occasionally still see the lingering effects of hurricane Sandy. Houses with crooked balcony railings, abandoned houses with their windows boarded shut, dangling power lines. More than four years after Sandy, it seems that most Rockaway residents have resumed their lives. But what about those who didn’t or couldn’t rebuild? Where are the people that used to live in those now abandoned houses?

For some Rockaway residents, the Sandy’s impact was not limited to the physical destruction it caused. Many residents continue to battle with the lingering psychological effects of Sandy. For some youth, Sandy meant one more year of college due to missed deadlines or inevitable drop-outs due to an inability to get to classes in Manhattan when the area’s only subway line shut down for nearly a month after Sandy.

Some argue that year-long housing should have never been built on Rockaway in the first place. With little in the way between the Atlantic Ocean and Rockaway’s residents, the Rockaways are the first frontier when disaster hits. While those with cars may be able to evacuate during times of crises, the most vulnerable residents who depend on public transportation are left to fend for themselves.

Taking inspiration from Kim Stringfellow’s work on the Salton Sea, which aims to bring awareness to the area’s ecological issues through multimedia exploration, I hope to remind my audience that Rockaway Beach is more than just a summer destination for city residents. By documenting the continued transportation and infrastructure challenges faced by Rockaway residents through images, sounds, and video, I hope to expose the lingering effects of discriminatory city planning, as well as the imminent effects of climate change on Rockaway Beach.

What Matters

•March 26, 2017 • 3 Comments

 

The Gowanus Canal has been a polluted site since its conception in the late 1800s. The site has definitely seen its fair share of abuse in the form of industrial and sewage waste. Despite being declared an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund site and $500+ million clean-up estimated to begin next year, the likelihood of it coming to fruition is endangered by the fact that the Trump administration has announced to cut 31% of the EPA’s budget, which would specifically decrease the Superfund program’s budget from about $1.1 billion to $762 million (Gardner, Volcovici).

What’s worse is that not only is the EPA’s budget being drastically reduced and impairing the organization’s ability to enforce guidelines that are in the public’s best interests, but its management structure appears to prioritize economic gains over environmental concerns. The Trump administration’s stance towards relaxing regulations coupled with the fact that the newly appointed head of the EPA has ties to the fossil fuel industry suggests a “business savvy” approach to dealing with problematic ecologies that pose or run the risk of posing serious threats to public health. Guattari and Deleuze note, “The flow of capital produces an immense channel, a quantification of power with immediate ‘quanta,’ where each person profits from the passage of money flow in his or her own way…There is no universal capitalism…It invents its eastern face and western face, and reshapes them both –all for the worst” (20), and imply that profitability drives production. But in industrial monetary endeavors, as seen in the case of Gowanus, unfavorable decisions are made that consequently negatively affect the environment. However, similarly to how the crackdown on such damages presented costly clean-up plans on the parts of the parties responsible for wrecking Superfund sites, eventually (let’s hope sooner rather than later) it will be realized that such consequences make said companies question whether or not their flagrant disregard for the environment in the pursuit of making money was worth it.

Though Gowanus’ remediation efforts run the risk of being stalled, this obstacle also highlights the site’s problematic history of being placed on the back burner. A dumping ground full of hazardous waste has successfully been downplayed as a minimal issue thanks largely to industrial greed. Such capitalist motivations are further echoed in the way that a luxury housing development is being built on the banks of the canal. What’s even more shocking is that people actually want to live in said development and over 56,000 sent in applications in the hopes of being chosen to live in one of the building’s 86 affordable housing units. One would think that living on the banks of one of the most polluted waterways in the nation would come at a lower price tag, but this is not the case as one bedroom apartments start at $3,000/month and prices go up from there. (Albrecht).

This development illustrates how Gowanus has gone largely ignored by the community. Though the PR for these apartments isn’t particularly innovative in terms of persuasion (who wants to kayak in a barf colored, pungent canal anyway?), people seem to not mind or be concerned that they are not allowed to garden because of potential hazards lurking in the soil or the fact that raw sewage still regularly appears in the water. Capitalism wins again in the way that consumer personally chooses to value status over environment and to an extent their long-term health by moving to an up and coming area labeled the “Venice of Brooklyn”, blatantly overlooking the mess that the new building they want to move into so desperately is sitting on. As if the smell of the canal was not enough of a transmission of affect, (Teresa Brennan’s argument of smell’s role in helping people “feel the atmosphere” seems to go unnoticed or maybe many of these people have limited olfactory sense), the theme here seems to be that people trying to move there are too blinded by the hipness and wealth of the neighborhood to do some research on what they would be subjecting themselves to if they lived in this new building.

The real root of the problem arguably appears to be one of transmission of affect. Many people have little to no sense of urgency when it comes to cleaning up Gowanus and why should they? It’s been a toxic hotbed for over a century and it’s less than 2 miles long anyway. And in the grand scheme of things New York is already full of pollution so what is the harm of letting the canal remain stagnant, really? The point is that though steps are in the process of being taken to implement a solution, the administration’s adamant support of industry over environment conflated with the community’s continued ignorance of the issue have the potential to cause serious damage in the future and increase larger clean-up costs the longer action is put off. Gowanus not only matters locally, but nationally as well because such an attitude encourages environmental harm in order to benefit industry and there is only so long that this pattern can be sustained before wreaking havoc on public health. What needs to happen, as per Deleuze and Guattari, is a shift from the industrial habit of “tracing” methods to instead take a more “rhizomatic” or holistic approach by realizing that financial success does not have to come at the expense of the environment or public health.

Works Cited

Albrecht, Leslie. “How Contaminated Land on the Gowanus Became a Luxury Housing Development.” DNAinfo New York. DNAinfo., 03 May 2016. Web. 23 Mar. 2017.

Brennan, Teresa. The Transmission of Affect. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 2004. PDF.

Deleuze, Gilles, and Felix Guattari. “Introduction: Rhizome.” A Thousand Plateaus; Capitalism and Schizophrenia, By Gillesdeleuze and Felix Guattari. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota, 1987. 1-25. Print.

Volcovici, Valerie, and Timothy Gardner, and Volcovici, Valerie. “EPA Hit Hardest as Trump Budget Targets Regulations.” Reuters. Thomson Reuters, 16 Mar. 2017. Web. 23 Mar. 2017.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Things that matter

•March 26, 2017 • 1 Comment

Kim Stringfellow in concluding paragraphs of her book, Greetings from the Salton Sea, writes, “Complexity, when it comes to accurately describing problems facing multifarious, interrelated ecological systems seems to rattle most of us.”

It is the same complexity that rattles me when I think about describing racial profiling and surveillance of Muslims in New York. The location of certain mosques in certain neighborhoods has always been a rationale for federal agencies to watch Muslims. The FBI has been watching Masjid Al-Farooq, situated on Atlantic Avenue between Third and Fourth avenues, since 9/11. The federal agencies claim that al-Qaeda terrorist leaders sprout from this mosque.

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Things that matter:

The presence of federal agencies

The alleged presence of feds watching the activities around the mosques matter. It matters because, despite the state and fed agencies’ denial of surveillance of Muslims, two policemen were watching the mosque from a car parked across the street from the mosque. They said they were NYPD but did not show their identity cards. They did not give a reason but warned me that the area “wasn’t safe”.

It matters because, according to the latest news, the Department of Homeland Security is reviewing Barack Obama’s Countering Violent Extremism (CVE) initiative under the new name, “Countering Radical Islam” or “Countering Violent Jihad”. And it matters, most importantly, because privacy is the fundamental right in the US under the Fourth Amendment of Constitution. While all of us are being surveilled, a certain group of people is being watched and profiled (both online and offline) more extensively and disproportionately than the rest.

Social sorting and discrimination

Surveillance is a routine at the time when mobile and software companies are compromising user data for government agencies. And any kind of profiling effort violates the civil liberties of racial and ethnic minorities and it matters. However, there is discrimination is surveillance. Surveillance is an actant that produces a technical effect of creating intelligence and social effect of intruding into private spaces of Muslims. It would be appropriate to recall Jane Bennett’s explanation of political ecology of things in Vibrant Matter, “The terms is Bruno Latour’s: an actant is a source of action that can be either human or nonhuman; it is that which has efficacy, alter the course of events.”

Also, the act of profiling Muslims going to the mosques is the act of Othering and isolating. It is creating distrust among the Muslims against non-Muslims. The two imams, with whom I tried to talk about their experience of being surveilled, did not trust me with my intentions. The current political climate and my failure to build solidarity could be the two reasons. Not long ago NYPD spied on them for six years by profiling where they ate, prayed and worked, and paid to bait Muslims into making inflammatory statements. Hence, increasing distrust among Muslims and the potential threat to the privacy of Muslims based on discriminatory surveillance practices matter.

Right to Privacy

When looking at the issue of surveillance the concerns about the right to privacy matter. The interference in religious practices also creates social stigma and fear among Muslims, especially children, who grow up in such atmosphere. It matters because everyone should have an equal right to privacy.

Discipline, control, and punish

Michel Foucault, in his seminal work Discipline and Punish, emphasizes on the modern way of punishing rather than torturing or killing someone. He argues that the modern way of punishment becomes that model for control of entire society. One of the techniques of control he mentions is hierarchical observation. Today, the surveillance cameras are the tools of hierarchical observation that not only protect the human beings from potential harm but also watches them constantly and keeps track of their activities.

In the context of surveillance of Muslims, the act of controlling and punishing are far more pervasive. It matters because such type of surveillance is not conducted against any other religious group or individuals other than Muslims. It matters because it is one of the reasons that triggers racism.

 

Works Cited

Stringfellow, Kim. Greetings from the Salton Sea: folly and intervention in the southern California landscape, 1905-2005. Chicago: The Center for American Places at Columbia College Chicago, 2011. Web.

Bennett, Jane. Vibrant matter: a political ecology of things. Durham: Duke U Press, 2010. Print.

Foucault, Michel. “Discipline and Punish.” On Violence (2007): 444-71. Web.

“American Civil Liberties Union.” American Civil Liberties Union. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2017.

 

We All Matter

•March 26, 2017 • 1 Comment

For the last century, queerness has become a larger part of the public conscious, gaining traction in civil rights and media representation at a steady rate since the 1900’s. This has especially been the case in New York City, which has a long history with the LGBTQ+ Community. From the Stonewall Riots of 1969, to the protests towards political apathy during the AIDS/HIV crisis, to the legalization of same-sex marriage a full four years before the Supreme Court decision of 2015. We’ve been fighting for an equal place in the world for years now and we’ve made such progress to make this world a more accepting place for any person who identifies as LGBTQ+.

 

But the problem is that it’s not enough, and that’s precisely why this ecology matters. Despite this progress that we’ve made and the rights that we’ve had to fight for, this ecology and the world as a whole isn’t safe enough for people who don’t identify as heterosexual. Queer people are still up to four times more likely to attempt suicide within their youth, and discrimination against us as a whole hasn’t magically stopped with the national legalization of gay marriage in 2015. Even just a month ago, the federal government under President Trump declared that transgender people don’t even get to go into the bathroom of their own choosing.

 

You might be thinking that this doesn’t really matter that much as New York City is such a sanctuary for queer people, and that it doesn’t matter what happens out there as long as our population is safe. However, nothing is as self-contained as it seems. Political dispositions, moods, and ideologies flow between entire populations, as affect does. As described by Teresa Brennan in “The Transmission of Affect”, “…indeed the transmission of affect means, that we are not self-contained in terms of our energies. There is no secure distinction between the ‘individual’ and the ‘environment’” (6). What happens in the outside world affects us and gives us affect as much as we affect them. Just think back to the Stonewall Riots of 1969; those protests gave motion to national changes in policy across the entire nation. With a single spark in such a small area, affect was created and spread throughout such a wide group of people, and this is especially accentuated within the digital age where materials can become viral in a mere instant.

 

The matters within my ecology, from the historic buildings to the current queer populations and advocators, will be utilized in my site in order to inspire people to advocate for the LGBTQ+ community so that queer youth will receive the basic human rights we all deserve. Combining these current emotions along with the historical contents will create affect that will call people to action, as Brian Massumi says that “The body [when experience affect] doesn’t just absorb pulses or discrete stimulations; it infolds contexts, it infolds volitions and cognitions that are nothing if not situation” (30).

 

We cannot allow ourselves to believe that the severe mental health issues that are so strongly associated with the LGBTQ+ community are the results of only individuals. In “Nuclear Wasteland” by Valerie Kuletz, she states that “Efforts to individualize the nuclear problem effectively mask the real social nature of nuclearism and constitute a mechanism of exclusion on a mass scale, in effect saying “radiation doesn’t cause cancer, (individual) people do” (87). As she explains that people tried to blame individuals for the negative effects of the situation rather than the larger systematic issues that caused it. This is highly unacceptable. We shouldn’t build a world where people feel like they are second class citizens because of who they love or how they identify themselves. In the end, we need to know that we all matter.

Brennan, Teresa. The Transmission of Affect. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 2004. PDF.

Massumi, Brian. “The Autonomy of Affect.” Cultural Critique, no. 31, 1995, pp. 23–43.

Kuletz, Valerie. “Nuclear Wasteland.” The Tainted Desert: Environmental Ruin in the American West. New York: Routledge, 1998. N. pag. Print.

Matters

•March 26, 2017 • 1 Comment

Air Pollution matters because it affects everyone. Although it affects people in different ways, some more prominently than others, it is something that has the ability to affect anyone, whether it be through harm of the body, climate change, etc.

Air Pollution is something that, although it may not seem like it would be, is related to racial minority and low income politics. These groups suffer disproportionate effects of the urban environmental problems. In her book, Noxious New York, Julie Sze analyzes the culture, politics, and history of environmental justice activism in New York City, within the larger context of privatization, deregulation, and globalization. Sze tracks urban planning and environmental health activism n the neighborhoods of sunset park and Williamsburg, west Harlem, and the south bronx.

She inspired me to go about my ecology in this way, rather than my original broad topic. I am now focusing on the racial minorities and lower income communities, and how they are affected by air pollution. Being able to be part of the change that “fixes” air pollution is a privilege, and that’s why my ecology matters.

Media and mass awareness is one way to not only understand, but try and learn how to fix this problem, or at least how to relate tho people who may be more greatly affected by air pollution due to their personal, unchangeable circumstances. In Brian Massumi’s reading, “The Autonomy of Affect”, he states that “the simultaneous participation of the virtual in the actual and the actual in the virtual, as one arises from and returns to the other. Affect is this two-sideness as seen from the side of the actual thing, as couched in its perceptions and cognitions” (96). The virtual is directly related to human perception of real life. Affect, according to Massumi, is the “virtual as point of view… affects are virtual synesthetic perspectives anchored in the actually existing, particular things that embody them”.

Air pollution is a difficult subject, especially because it is something that is hard to see, until it is too late and the damage is too late. That is why it is important that my ecology shines a light on it, using the virtual world. I read a book, Noxious New York, written by Julie Sze, which studies how “Racial minority and low-income communities often suffer disproportionate effects of urban environmental problems. Environmental justice advocates argue that these communities are on the front lines of environmental and health risks.” (Sze) 

My ecology matters as an environmental justice investigation. There was a study done by one of interview subjects, George Thurston, about racial minorities and air pollution..  The objectives of this investigation were a) to determine if racial minorities are more adversely affected by ambient air pollution than their white counterparts and b) to assess the contribution of socioeconomic status to any observed racial differences in pollution effect.” The study found that these statuses did indeed contribute to the amount affected by air pollution. This is why my ecology matters. This issue, while a problem to the entire world, is more acutely an issue for people of minority, who have no control over this. According to this study, poorer communities are more likely than affluent communities to be located close to environmental hazards such as landfills, medical waste incinerators, diesel bus depots, and Superfund sites. (Thurston)

Even outside of non-white and impoverished communities, air pollution and its consequences are wide spread- especially in a city like New York. In fact, it is estimated that 7 billion people die from air pollution each year. Another reason that air pollution is a racial, subcultured issue, is because of public health as a broader issue. Insurance, hospital visits, etc. are all things that relate to air pollution, but are affected and malleable due to a person’s socioeconomic status.

works cited:

Gwynn, R. Charon, and George D. Thurston. “The Burden of Air Pollution: Impacts among                  Racial Minorities.” Environmental Health Perspectives 109.S4 (2001): 501-06. Web.
Massumi, Brian. “The Autonomy of Affect.” Cultural Critique 31 (1995): 83. Web.
 Sze, Julie. Noxious New York the Racial Politics of Urban Health and Environmental Justice.
            Cambridge, Mass.: MIT, 2007. Print.